The Possible Cardio-Reno- Protective Effects of Vanillin on Isopretrenol- Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Egypt.


Myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be a major public health problem in the world. Vanillin is a natural phenolic compound that possesses significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pretreatment with vanillin (150 mg/kg, p.o.) and vanillin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) on isoprenaline-induced MI in rats. Markers chosen to assess cardiac damage included serum activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in addition to serum level of cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I), as well as antioxidant activity  of cardiac catalase (CAT) as well as cardiac contents of RGH, lipid peroxides, and nitrite. Furthermore Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring and histological examinations of cardiac tissues were done. In addition markers chosen to assess renal impairment included serum and urine levels of creatinin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), also creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea clearance (Ucr) and glomerular filteration rate (GFR) were assessed. In addition, antioxidant activity of renal CAT and renal contents of RGH, lipid peroxides, and nitrite. Furthermore, histological examinations of renal tissues were done. Isoprenaline increased serum CK-MB and LDH activity and cTn-I level, cardiac and renal oxidative stress biomarkers. In addition, it produced ST-segment elevation and degenerative changes in heart and renal tissues. Pretreatment with vanillin in previous doses significantly suppressed isoprenaline-induced pathological changes, as the elevated levels of cTn-I, LDH and CK-MB in serum coupled with reduction in cardiac and renal oxidative stress markers. Moreover marked improvement in ECG and histopathologic alterations in both cardiac and renal tissues were produced. In conclusion, vanillin can be regarded as a promising cardio- and reno- protective natural agent in MI.