Assessment of DNA Damage on Adult Albino Rats Induced by Dermal Exposure to P-Phenylenediamine (PPD)

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


Hair dyes are widely used as cosmetic agents to color the grey hair around the world. P-phenylenediamine (PPD) induced genotoxicity due to dermal application was investigated in this study. 90 rats conducted this study and were classified into main 4 groups. Negative control group, positive control group. In-addition, two toxicity groups; short term toxicity group and long term toxicity group. Both toxicity groups were further subdivided according to PPD dose into 10 and 15 mg/kg subgroups. The results showed that repeated dermal exposure to PPD induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in dose and time dependent manner.