Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract against Potassium Dichromate Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Small Intestine of Adult Male Albino Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt


Background: Chromium usage is increasing worldwide. Oral exposure to hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) in animals and humans causes various health hazards. Cr (VI) compounds are classified as class I human carcinogens. Antioxidants were reported to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), naturally occurring compounds, have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-tumor activities.
Objectives: Accordingly, this work was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of GSPE against oxidative DNA damage induced by potassium dichromate on small intestine of adult male albino rats through biochemical and microscopic study.
Study design: Forty adult male albino rats were included in this study and divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control group. Group II received 100mg/kg/day GSPE. Group III was treated with 15mg/kg/day potassium dichromate. Group IV received both K dichromate and GSPE in their previous doses. All animals were treated orally by syringe feeding method for two months. Body weight, plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol (T-SH) of all studied groups were measured. In addition, light microscopic examination of small intestine using hematoxylin and eosin stains and immunostaining for detection of p53 positive cells as well as scanning electron microscopic examination were carried out.
Results: The current study showed that adult male albino rats treated orally with potassium dichromate showed decrease in body weight, significant increase in plasma and intestinal tissue MDA and significant decrease in plasma and intestinal tissue thiol level. All these changes were associated with severe histological alterations in the wall of the small intestine especially the duodenum with significant increase of p53 positive cells. GSPE were found to counteract the toxic effect of potassium dichromate by attenuating oxidative stress and DNA damage.
Conclusion: It is concluded that GSPE is promising as an agent that can potentially reduce K dichromate induced toxic effects in small intestine through its antioxidant effect.