Review on Diclofenac Toxicities in Different Organs

Document Type : Original Article


1 Clinical research coordinator, research department, Children Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Student at Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (ASU), Cairo, Egypt.

3 Student at Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire hosted by Global Academic Foundation (GAF), New Administrative Capital, Egypt.

4 Student at Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

5 Student at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz), Austria

6 Dar Al Fouad Hospital (DAFH), Giza, Egypt.

7 Student at Faculty of Science, Banha University, Banha, Egypt.

8 Student at Faculty of Medicine, New Giza University (NGU), Cairo, Egypt.

9 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

10 Material Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Science (PSAS), Beni- Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

11 Lecturer, Histology and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt


Introduction: Diclofenac is an over-the-counter (OTC) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works through non-selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thereby inhibiting the release of prostaglandins. Known for its efficacy in alleviating inflammation, pain, and fever symptoms, concerns have arisen regarding the potential toxicity of Diclofenac. Its toxicity can cause a wide variety of adverse effects, ranging from self-limiting side effects that disappear after treatment cessation to an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases and strokes. Determining the threshold dose that distinguishes between mild, self-limiting side effects and more severe adverse effects poses a major challenge in diclofenac toxicity research. Method: This article reviewed various doses and different organ toxicities observed in animal and human studies using diclofenac. Aim: Our objective is to define the toxicities in fourteen organs and organize them into different categories as animal toxicities, human toxicities, and teratogenicity through pathological changes. Conclusion: By searching different databases and collecting the observed toxicities, we have concluded that the primary affected organs are the stomach, liver, and kidney. However, there is limited knowledge on the toxic effects on the brain, heart, lungs, spleen, eye, bone, bone marrow, blood, and testes, while rarely available data for the pancreas, bladder, skin, muscle, and uterus.