Nephrotoxic effect of Hydrogen Cyanamide (Dormex) and possible protective role of N-acetyl cysteine in male albino rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

2 Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

3 Medical Biochemistry and molecular biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.


Background: Dormex is a highly toxic fertilizer that causes local tissue irritation in addition to multiple organ toxicity mainly through oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to investigate nephrotoxic effect of dormex and to evaluate potential protective role of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on kidney of male albino rats. Methods: This study was conducted on forty mature male albino rats were distributed to; Group I, II: rats were given normal saline and NAC, respectively. Group III: rats received single dose of dormex. Group IV: rats were given the same dose of dormex plus NAC. Blood urea and serum creatinine were assessed. Oxidative stress markers as malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD ) were measured. Renal specimens were studied with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Renal indices, urea and creatinine, MDA were significantly increased, while glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered significantly in experimental rats received dormex. Kidney tissue of dormex administered rat’s revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis, tubular necrosis and obstruction. Treatment with NAC markedly improved oxidative stress parameters but did not show marked effect on dormex induced histopathological changes. Conclusions: It can be concluded that dormex triggers oxidative stress causing affection of the renal function. Although NAC could decrease oxidative stress, it was not able to protect against cellular toxicity of dormex.
Received in original form: 3 November 2021 Accepted in a final form: 15 Augest 2022